Marker : 에서

The marker ‘에서’ is attached to a place (e.g. house) to indicate where an action takes place/occurs. Thus,  ‘에서’ can be loosely translated to ‘at/in/inside’.

Example

Ex 1) 수지 씨가 수영장에서 수영해요. (Suji is swimming in the swimming pool.) [Su ji  shi ga  su yong jang e saw  su yong he yo.]

{ 수영장 : swimming pool }

{ 수영해요 : swimming }

 

Ex 2) 앤디 씨가 대사관에서 비자를 받아요. (Andy is receiving his visa at the Embassy.) [Andy shi ga dae sa guan e saw bi ja r- ba da yo.]

{ 대사관 : Embassy }

{ 비자 : visa }

{ 받아요 : receiving }

Ex 3) 안나 씨가 미국에서 왔어요. (Anna came from America.) [Anna shi ga mi guk e saw wa saw yo.]

{ 미국 : America }

{ 왔어요 : came }

 

N.B: Do not be confused with (a) “안나 씨가 미국에서 왔어요.” and (b) “안나 씨가 미국 왔어요.”

Even though both sentences are similar, (a) has the meaning of “Anna is an American and came from America” whereas (b) has the meaning of “Anna came back from America” from a holiday, studies or whatsoever. Hence, do not mix up the 2.

 

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형용사 (현재) : Adjective Verb (Present Tense) – Informal Polite Style ‘아/어요’

In this post, I am going to talk about adjective verbs.

‘아 / 어 요’ is the informal polite style for sentences ending with an adjective verb.

 

1) ‘아 요’ is used whenever the adjective verb ends with a vowel ‘아’ or ‘오’.

Example:

a) 작 다 -> 작 + 아 요 => 작 아 요 (small)

b) 좋 다 -> 좋 + 아 요 => 좋 아 요 (good)

E.g:

이 바지가 작아요. (This pants is small.) [yi pajiga jakayo.]

이 책이 좋아요. (This book is good.) [yi cheki johayo.]

 

2) ‘어 요’ is used whenever the last vowel of the adjective verb is anything but ’아’ or ‘오’.

Example:

a) 예 쁘 다 -> 예 쁘 + 어 요 => 예 뻐 요 (pretty / beautiful)

{When a verb ends with a vowel ‘ㅡ’ and no consonant behind the vowel, ‘쁘’ + 어 요 becomes ‘으’ + ‘어’ => ‘어’, and hence becomes ‘뻐 요’.}

E.g:

그 여자가 예뻐요. (That girl is pretty.) [G- yourjaga yebawyo.]

 

If you have read my previous post, you will realise that ‘여 요’ is missing for this post which means that you do not see any ‘하 다’ at all. Why is this so? Because ‘하 다’  means it is an action itself. Hence, there will NOT be any adjective verb that ends in ‘하 다’.

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동작동사 (현재) : Action Verb (Present Tense) – Informal Polite Style ‘아/어/여요’

In my earlier post, I talked about verbs (action verbs and adjective verbs) and it is important to know the verb stem so that we know how to transform them into past tense, present tense and future tense correctly.

Today, I will be talking on Action Verb in the Present Tense (Informal Polite Style).

Informal Polite Style is used when we are talking to friends, classmates etc.

‘아 / 어 / 여요’ is the informal polite style for sentences ending with an action verb.

1) ‘아 요’ is used whenever the action verb ends with a vowel ‘아’ or ‘오’.

Example:

a) 오 다 -> 오 + 아 요 => 와 요 (come)

b) 보 다 -> 보 + 아 요 => 봐 요 (watch)

c)  가 다 -> 가 + 아 요 => 가 요 (go)

d) 살 다 -> 살 + 아 요 => 살 아 요 (live/stay)

{오다 is the verb stem. Whenever 오다 is transformed with the addition of ‘아/어/여요’, the ‘다’ is eliminated straightaway. So, in almost all cases, you rarely see or hear sentences ending with ‘다’.}

{살 다 is the exception as 살 ends with a consonant ‘ㄹ’ instead of a vowel. However, we have to ignore the consonant and look at the last vowel of the Korean character. Why is this so? It is because ‘ㄹ’ is considered a soft sound when being pronounced ‘sa’ instead of ‘sal’. Hence, action verbs ending with ‘ㄹ’ will have ‘아요’ being added behind. Another example is ‘알다’ (understand) -> ‘알아요’.}

E.g:

미나 씨가 학교에 가요. (Mina goes to school.) [Mina shiga hakgyo e gayo.]

앤디 씨가 미국에 살아요. (Andy lives in America.) [Andy shiga miguke sarayo.]

2) ‘어 요’ is used whenever the last vowel of the action verb is anything but ‘아’ or ‘오’.

Example:

a) 먹 다 -> 먹 + 어 요 => 먹 어 요 (eat)

b) 주 다 -> 주 + 어 요 => 줘 요 (give)

c) 마 시 다 -> 마 시 + 어 요 => 마 셔 요 (drink)

d) 쓰 다 -> 쓰 + 어 요 => 써 요 (write)

e) 듣 다 -> 듣 + 어 요 => 들 어 요 (listen / hear)

{When a verb ends with a vowel ‘ㅣ’ and no consonant behind the vowel, ‘시’ + 어 요 becomes ‘이’ + ‘어’ => ‘여’, and hence becomes ‘셔 요’.}

{When a verb ends with a vowel ‘ㅡ’ and no consonant behind the vowel, ‘쓰’ + 어 요 becomes ‘으’ + ‘어’ => ‘어’, and hence becomes ‘써 요’.}

{듣 다 is also another exception. For action verbs ending with the consonant ‘ㄷ’ but with vowel not ending with ‘아’ or ‘오’, it will automatically change from ‘듣’ to  ‘들’. Hence, it is ‘들 어 요’ instead of ‘듣 어 요’.}

E.g:

앤디 씨가 음악을 들어요. (Andy listens to music.) [Andi shiga elmak- d-rawyo.]

미나 씨가 우유를 마셔요. (Mina drinks milk.) [Mina shiga wooyou r- mashoyo.]

3) ‘여 요’ is used whenever the action verb ends with ‘하 다’.

Example:

a) 공 부 하 다 -> 공 부 하 + 여 요 => 공 부 해 요 (study)

b) 말 하 다 -> 말 하 + 여 요 => 말 해 요 (speak / talk)

E.g.

앤디 씨가 한국어를 공부해요. (Andy studies Korean language.) [Andy shiga hangukaw r- gongbuheyo.]

소라 씨가 운동해요. (Sora exercises.) [Sora shiga undongheyo.]

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동사 : Verbs

All verbs have a verb stem. The verb stem is the basic form of the verb.

It is important to know the verb stem because the verb will change in accordance to past tense, present tense, as well as future tense. Thus, if you do not know the verb stem, you will have problems using them interchangeably.

A verb stem usually ends in ~다.

For e.g. 가다 (go), 예쁘다 (beautiful), 공부하다 (study)

Verbs can be classified into 2 categories:

1) Action verb 동작동사

Action, as the name implies, refers to an action, e.g. run, walk, talk

2) Adjective  verb 형용사

Adjective, as the name implies, is used to describe something, e.g. beautiful, long, fat

In my next 2 posts, I will talk about the verbs in more details. Stay tuned! ^^

{ Romanization of (a) 가다 (go) ga~da, (b) 예쁘다 (beautiful) ye~b-~da, (c) 공부하다 (study) gong~bu~ha~da, (d) 동작동사 (action verb) tong~jak~tong~sa, (e) 형용사 (adjective verb) hyeong~yong~sa}

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몇 번 : what number / which number

몇 means ‘how many’ but when used with 번 together, the meaning of 몇 becomes ‘what’ or ‘which’.

‘몇 번’ is normally used to ask a question which involves the answer to be in numbers e.g. telephone number or bus number.

In this case, we will answer using Sino-Korean numbers.

We will normally attach ‘예요/이에요?’ as the ending when ‘몇 번’ is used.

 

Ex1)

Q: 몇 번 버스예요? (What is bus number)

A: 502번 버스예요.  (It is number 502)

{502번 is pronounced as 오백 이 번 in this case because we are using Sino-Korean numbers}

{번 means number}

{버스 means bus}

{As 버스 is a noun and ends in a vowel, we will attach 예요 to it}

 

Ex2)

Q: 전화번호가 몇 번이에요? (What is your telephone number)

A: 224-2243이에요. (It is 224-2243)

{In this case,  ‘224-2243’ is pronounced as ‘이이사에 이이사삼’ because we are using Sino-Korean numbers and the ‘-‘ is pronounced as ‘에’ when using together with numbers}

{전화번호 means telephone number}

 

 

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얼마예요? : how much is it?

‘얼마예요?’ is used to ask about the price of an item. Ex) 이 가방이 얼마예요? (How much is this bag) {이 means this} {가방 means bag}

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Marker : 에

‘에’ is the marker to indicate object location/place marker and time/date.

 

1. Object location/place marker

When ‘에’ is used to indicate object location/place marker, “있어요” or “없어요” is always used. In this case, ‘에’ is similar to ‘at’ in English.

Ex) 앤디 씨가 학교 있어요. (Andy is at school)

{학교 means school}

 

2. Time/Date

‘에’ is also a marker that indicates time or date.

Ex) 저는 3월 한국에 가요. (I go to Korea in March)

{3월 means March}

{한국 means Korea}

{가요 means go}

{The first 에 that appears behind 3월 is the time/place marker}

{The second 에 that appears and not being highlighted, is the object location/place marker}

 

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