동작동사 (현재) : Action Verb (Present Tense) – Informal Polite Style ‘아/어/여요’

In my earlier post, I talked about verbs (action verbs and adjective verbs) and it is important to know the verb stem so that we know how to transform them into past tense, present tense and future tense correctly.

Today, I will be talking on Action Verb in the Present Tense (Informal Polite Style).

Informal Polite Style is used when we are talking to friends, classmates etc.

‘아 / 어 / 여요’ is the informal polite style for sentences ending with an action verb.

1) ‘아 요’ is used whenever the action verb ends with a vowel ‘아’ or ‘오’.

Example:

a) 오 다 -> 오 + 아 요 => 와 요 (come)

b) 보 다 -> 보 + 아 요 => 봐 요 (watch)

c)  가 다 -> 가 + 아 요 => 가 요 (go)

d) 살 다 -> 살 + 아 요 => 살 아 요 (live/stay)

{오다 is the verb stem. Whenever 오다 is transformed with the addition of ‘아/어/여요’, the ‘다’ is eliminated straightaway. So, in almost all cases, you rarely see or hear sentences ending with ‘다’.}

{살 다 is the exception as 살 ends with a consonant ‘ㄹ’ instead of a vowel. However, we have to ignore the consonant and look at the last vowel of the Korean character. Why is this so? It is because ‘ㄹ’ is considered a soft sound when being pronounced ‘sa’ instead of ‘sal’. Hence, action verbs ending with ‘ㄹ’ will have ‘아요’ being added behind. Another example is ‘알다’ (understand) -> ‘알아요’.}

E.g:

미나 씨가 학교에 가요. (Mina goes to school.) [Mina shiga hakgyo e gayo.]

앤디 씨가 미국에 살아요. (Andy lives in America.) [Andy shiga miguke sarayo.]

2) ‘어 요’ is used whenever the last vowel of the action verb is anything but ‘아’ or ‘오’.

Example:

a) 먹 다 -> 먹 + 어 요 => 먹 어 요 (eat)

b) 주 다 -> 주 + 어 요 => 줘 요 (give)

c) 마 시 다 -> 마 시 + 어 요 => 마 셔 요 (drink)

d) 쓰 다 -> 쓰 + 어 요 => 써 요 (write)

e) 듣 다 -> 듣 + 어 요 => 들 어 요 (listen / hear)

{When a verb ends with a vowel ‘ㅣ’ and no consonant behind the vowel, ‘시’ + 어 요 becomes ‘이’ + ‘어’ => ‘여’, and hence becomes ‘셔 요’.}

{When a verb ends with a vowel ‘ㅡ’ and no consonant behind the vowel, ‘쓰’ + 어 요 becomes ‘으’ + ‘어’ => ‘어’, and hence becomes ‘써 요’.}

{듣 다 is also another exception. For action verbs ending with the consonant ‘ㄷ’ but with vowel not ending with ‘아’ or ‘오’, it will automatically change from ‘듣’ to  ‘들’. Hence, it is ‘들 어 요’ instead of ‘듣 어 요’.}

E.g:

앤디 씨가 음악을 들어요. (Andy listens to music.) [Andi shiga elmak- d-rawyo.]

미나 씨가 우유를 마셔요. (Mina drinks milk.) [Mina shiga wooyou r- mashoyo.]

3) ‘여 요’ is used whenever the action verb ends with ‘하 다’.

Example:

a) 공 부 하 다 -> 공 부 하 + 여 요 => 공 부 해 요 (study)

b) 말 하 다 -> 말 하 + 여 요 => 말 해 요 (speak / talk)

E.g.

앤디 씨가 한국어를 공부해요. (Andy studies Korean language.) [Andy shiga hangukaw r- gongbuheyo.]

소라 씨가 운동해요. (Sora exercises.) [Sora shiga undongheyo.]

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About nunasaoirse

I have been learning Korean language for more than 8 years in either Singapore or Korea. Writing this blog helps me to refresh my knowledge. I am still revising Korean language every now and then but not actively. This blog consisted of the gist of the several Korean textbooks that I am using and you may find some examples "de-ja-vu".
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