어디 : where

‘어디’ means ‘where’ in English.

We normally use ‘어디’ when we want to ask the whereabouts of something or someone.

‘에’ is normally attached to ‘어디’ and the verb ‘있어요’ is used.

 

Ex) Qns: 서울이 어디에 있어요? (Where is Seoul?)

{‘서울’ means ‘Seoul’}

{‘에’ is normally attached to ‘어디’ and in this case, ‘에’ means ‘at, in (place)’}

{‘있어요’ means existence in this case}

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누구 : who

‘누구’ means ‘who’ in English.

We normally attach ‘예요?’ after ‘누구’.

 

Ex) Qns: 이분이 누구예요? (Who is this person?)

{The first ‘이’ means ‘this’}

{‘분’ means ‘person’. We normally use ‘사람’ or ‘분’ for ‘person’. ‘사람’ is the informal form whereas ‘분’ is the polite/formal form. In the above question, as we do not know the person at all, thus, we will use the polite form when asking the question, so as to show respect to the person.}

{The second ‘이’ behind the ‘분’ does not stand for ‘this’. The second ‘이’ is the subject particle as ‘분’ is the subject in this question.}

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Sino-Korean numbers

There are 2 numbering systems in Korean and the other one is the Sino-Korean numbers.

Sino-Korean numbers are used for reading the numerals.

Sino-Korean numbers

0 영

1 일

2 이

3 삼

4 사

5 오

6 육

7 칠

8 팔

9 구

10 십

11 십 일

12 십 이

20 이십

30 삼십

40 사십

50 오십

60 욕십

70 칠십

80 팔십

90 구십

100 백

1,000 천

10,000 만

100,000 십만

1,000,000 백만

Sino-Korean numbers can be used to express price, telephone or bus numbers and dates.

 

Price

 

Ex 1) 이 가방이 20,000원이에요. (This bag costs 20,000won)

When we pronounce, it goes like this => 이 가방이 이만 원이에요.

{‘이’ means ‘this’}

{‘가방’ means bag}

Ex 2) 이 가방이 10,000원이에요. (This bag costs 10,000won)

When we pronounce, it goes like this => 이 가방이 만 원이에요.

 

Month

There are some exception cases when we pronounce the months of June and October.

January: 1월 (일월)

February: 2월 (이월)

March: 3월 (삼월)

April: 4월 (사월)

May: 5월 (오월)

June: 6월 (유월)

July: 7월 (칠월)

August: 8월 (팔월)

September: 9월 (구월)

October: 10월 (시월)

November: 11월 (십일월)

December: 12월 (십이월)

Note

1) When the Sino-Korean numbers are 100, 1000, 10000 etc, we will not pronounce the ‘일’.

Ex 1) 1,200원 => 천 이백원

Ex 2) 10,110원 => 만 백십원

2) The word for zero is ‘영’. However, when saying a telephone number, another word, ‘공’ is used for zero.

Ex) Telephone number: 02-225-2225

When we pronounce, it goes like this => 공이 에 이이오 에 이이이오.

{‘0’ => ‘공’}

{‘-‘ => ‘에’, we will pronounce ‘-‘ as ‘에’ in phone numbers}

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Korean numbers

There are 2 numbering systems in Korean and one of them is Korean numbers.

Korean numbers are mostly used for counting and a counter is usually attached to the Korean numbers.

Korean numbers

1 하나

2 둘

3 셋

4 넷

5 다섯

6 여섯

7 일곱

8 여덟

9 아홉

10 열

11 열 하나

12 열 둘

13 열 셋

14 열 넷

15 열 다섯

16 열 여섯

17 열 일곱

18 열 여덟

19 열 아홉

20 스물

30 서른

40 마흔

50 쉰

60 예순

70 일흔

80 여든

90 아흔

Ex) Qns: 몇 명 있어요? (How many people are there?)

Ans: 다섯 명 있어요. (There are 5 people.)

 

Note

Please take note that the following Korean numbers change their forms when used with counters:

하나 -> 한 개

둘 -> 두 개

셋 -> 세 개

넷 -> 네 개

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몇 : how many

‘몇’ means ‘how many’ in English.

 

It depends on the counter which you want to express. ‘counter’ refers to things, people, paper, animals etc.

 

1) People

Ex) 몇 명 있어요? (How many people are there?)

{‘명’ is the counter for people}

{몇 + 명 => 몇 명 (있어요)?}

 

2) Things

Ex) 몇 개 있어요? (How many things are there?)

{‘개’ is the counter for things}

{몇 + 개 => 몇 개 (있어요)?}

 

3) Paper

Ex) 몇 장 있어요? (How many pieces (of paper) are there?)

{‘장’ is the counter for pieces (of paper)}

{몇 + 장 => 몇 장 (있어요)?}

 

4) Animal

Ex) 몇 마리 있어요? (How many animals are there?)

{‘마리’ is the counter for animals}

{몇 + 마리 => 몇 마리 (있어요)?}

 

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없어요 : do not have

‘없어요’ is the opposite of ‘있어요’. If ‘있어요’ means ‘have’, then ‘없어요’ means ‘do not have’.

 

[We will use the same examples from the ‘있어요’ post] 

1) having (possession)

Ex) Qns: 돈이 있어요? (Do you have money?)

{돈 means ‘money’}

{돈 is the subject (noun) and ends with a consonant, thus, we attach the subject marker ‘이’ to the noun}

Ans: 아니요, 없어요. (No, I do not have)

{‘아니요’ means ‘no’}

 

2) existence (someone/something being in or at some place)

Ex) 매리가 집에 어요. (Mary is not at home)

{집 means ‘home/house’ and ‘에’ means ‘at’}

 

3) expressing location (i.e. under, above, behind etc)

Ex) 학교가 앞에 어요. (There isn’t any school in front)

{학교 means ‘school’ and 앞 means ‘front’ and 에 in this sentence means the direction}

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있어요 : to have / to be

‘있어요’ has 3 different meanings.

 

1) having (possession)

Ex) Qns: 돈이 있어요? (Do you have money?)

{돈 means ‘money’}

{돈 is the subject (noun) and ends with a consonant, thus, we attach the subject marker ‘이’ to the noun}

Ans: 네, 있어요. (Yes, I have)

{네 means ‘yes’}

 

2) existence (someone/something being in or at some place)

Ex) 매리가 집에 있어요. (Mary is at home)

{집 means ‘home/house’ and ‘에’ means ‘at’}

 

3) expressing location (i.e. under, above, behind etc)

Ex) 학교가 앞에 있어요. (There is a school in front)

{학교 means ‘school’ and 앞 means ‘front’ and 에 in this sentence means the direction}

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